Securing Fledge

The default installation of a Fledge service comes with security features turned off, there are several things that can be done to add security to Fledge. The REST API by default support unencrypted HTTP requests, it can be switched to require HTTPS to be used. The REST API and the GUI can be protected by requiring authentication to prevent users being able to change the configuration of the Fledge system. Authentication can be via username and password or by means of an authentication certificate.

Enabling HTTPS Encryption

Fledge can support both HTTP and HTTPS as the transport for the REST API used for management, to switch between there two transport protocols select the Configuration option from the left-hand menu and the select Admin API from the configuration tree that appears,


The first option you will see is a tick box labeled Enable HTTP, to select HTTPS as the protocol to use this tick box should be deselected.


When this is unticked two options become active on the page, HTTPS Port and Certificate Name. The HTTPS Port is the port that Fledge will listen on for HTTPS requests, the default for this is port 1995.

The Certificate Name is the name of the certificate that will be used for encryption. The default s to use a self signed certificate called fledge that is created as part of the installation process. This certificate is unique per fledge installation but is not signed by a certificate authority. If you require the extra security of using a signed certificate you may use the Fledge Certificate Store functionality to upload a certificate that has been created and signed by a certificate authority.

After enabling HTTPS and selecting save you must restart Fledge in order for the change to take effect. You must also update the connection setting in the GUI to use the HTTPS transport and the correct port.

Note: if using the default self-signed certificate you might need to authorise the browser to connect to IP:PORT. Just open a new browser tab and type the URL https://YOUR_FLEDGE_IP:1995 ; Then follow browser instruction in order to allow the connection and close the tab. In the Fledge GUI you should see the green icon (Fledge is running).


Requiring User Login

In order to set the REST API and GUI to force users to login before accessing Fledge select the Configuration option from the left-hand menu and then select Admin API from the configuration tree that appears.


Two particular items are of interest in this configuration category that is then displayed; Authentication and Authentication method


Select the Authentication field to be mandatory and the Authentication method to be password. Click on Save at the bottom of the dialog.

In order for the changes to take effect Fledge must be restarted, this can be done in the GUI by selecting the restart item in the top status bar of Fledge. Confirm the restart of Fledge and wait for it to be restarted.

Once restarted refresh your browser page. You should be presented with a login request.


The default username is “admin” with a password of “fledge”. Use these to login to Fledge, you should be presented with a slightly changed dashboard view.


The status bar now contains the name of the user that is currently logged in and a new option has appeared in the left-hand menu, User Management.

Changing Your Password

The top status bar of the Fledge GUI now contains the user name on the right-hand side and a pull down arrow, selecting this arrow gives a number of options including one labeled Profile.



This pulldown menu is also where the Shutdown and Restart options have moved.

Selecting the Profile option will display the profile for the user.


Towards the bottom of this profile display the change password option appears. Click on this text and a new password dialog will appear.


This popup can be used to change your password. On successfully changing your password you will be logged out of the user interface and will be required to log back in using this new password.

Password Rotation Mechanism

Fledge provides a mechanism to limit the age of passwords in use within the system. A value for the maximum allowed age of a password is defined in the configuration page of the user interface.


Whenever a user logs into Fledge the age of their password is checked against the maximum allowed password age. If their password has reached that age then the user is not logged in, but is instead forced to enter a new password. They must then login with that new password. In addition the system maintains a history of the last three passwords the user has used and prevents them being reused.

User Management

The user management option becomes active once the Fledge has been configured to require authentication of users. This is enabled via the Admin API page of the Configuration menu item. A new menu item User Management will appear in the left hand menu.


After setting the Authentication option to mandatory in the configuration page the Fledge instance should be restarted.


The user management pages allows

  • Adding new users.

  • Deleting users.

  • Resetting user passwords.

  • Changing the role of a user.

  • Changing the details of a user

Fledge currently supports four roles for users:

  • Administrator: a user with admin role is able to fully configure Fledge, view the data read by the Fledge instance and also manage Fledge users.

  • Editor: a user with this role is able to configure Fledge and view the data read by Fledge. The user can not manage other users or add new users.

  • Viewer: a user that can only view the configuration of the Fledge instance and the data that has been read by Fledge. The user has no ability to modify the Fledge instance in any way.

  • Data Viewer: a user that can only view the data in Fledge and not the configuration of Fledge itself. The user has no ability to modify the Fledge instance in any way.

Restrictions apply to both the API calls that can be made when authenticated as particular users and the access the user will have to the graphical user interface. Users will observe both menu items will be removed completely or options on certain pages will be unavailable.

Adding Users

To add a new user from the User Management page select the Add User icon in the top right of the User Management pane. a new dialog will appear that will allow you to enter details of that user.


You can select a role for the new user, a user name and an initial password for the user. Only users with the role admin can add new users.

Update User Details

The edit user option allows the name, authentication method and description of a user to be updated. This option is only available to users with the admin role.


Changing User Roles

The role that a particular user has when the login can be changed from the User Management page. Simply select on the change role link next to the user you wish to change the role of.


Select the new role for the user from the drop down list and click on update. The new role will take effect the next time the user logs in.

Reset User Password

Users with the admin role may reset the password of other users. In the User Management page select the reset password link to the right of the user name of the user you wish to reset the password of. A new dialog will appear prompting for a new password to be created for the user.


Enter the new password and confirm that password by entering it a second time and click on Update.

Delete A User

Users may be deleted from the User Management page. Select the delete link to the right of the user you wish to delete. A confirmation dialog will appear. Select Delete and the user will be deleted.


You can not delete the last user with role admin as this will prevent you from being able to manage Fledge.

Certificate Store

The Fledge Certificate Store allows certificates to be stored that may be referenced by various components within the system, in particular these certificates are used for the encryption of the REST API traffic and authentication. They may also be used by particular plugins that require a certificate of one type or another. A number of different certificate types re supported by the certificate store;

  • PEM files as created by most certificate authorities

  • CRT files as used by GlobalSign, VeriSign and Thawte

  • Binary CER X.509 certificates

  • JSON certificates as used by Google Cloud Platform

The Certificate Store functionality is available in the left-hand menu by selecting Certificate Store. When selected it will show the current content of the store.


Certificates may be removed by selecting the delete option next to the certificate name, note that the keys and certificates can be deleted independently. The self signed certificate that is created at installation time can not be deleted.

To add a new certificate select the Import icon in the top right of the certificate store display.


A dialog will appear that allows a key file and/or a certificate file to be selected and uploaded to the Certificate Store. An option allows to allow overwrite of an existing certificate. By default certificates may not be overwritten.

Generate a new auth certificates for user login

Default ca certificate is available inside $FLEDGE_DATA/etc/certs and named as ca.cert. Also default admin and non-admin certs are available in the same location which will be used for Login with Certificate in Fledge i.e admin.cert, user.cert. See Require User Login

Below are the steps to create custom certificate along with existing fledge based ca signed for auth certificates.

  1. Create a new certificate for username. Let say test

$ ./scripts/auth_certificates user test 365

Here script arguments are: $1=user $2=FLEDGE_USERNAME $3=SSL_DAYS_EXPIRATION

And now you can find test cert inside $FLEDGE_DATA/etc/certs/

  1. Now, it’s time to create user with name test (case sensitive). Also only admin can create user. Below are the cURL Commands

$ AUTH_TOKEN=$(curl -d '{"username": "admin", "password": "fledge"}' -sX POST <PROTOCOL>://<FLEDGE_IP>:<FLEDGE_REST_API_PORT>/fledge/login | jq '.token' | tr -d '""')
$ curl -H "authorization: $AUTH_TOKEN" -skX POST <PROTOCOL>://<FLEDGE_IP>:<FLEDGE_REST_API_PORT>/fledge/admin/user -d '{"username":"test","real_name":"Test","access_method":"cert","description":"Non-admin based role","role_id":2}'


role_id:2 (non-admin user) | if new user requires admin privileges then pass role_id:1

You may also refer the documentation of REST API cURL commands. If you are not comfortable with cURL commands then use the GUI steps User Management and make sure Login with admin user.


Steps a (cert creation) and b (create user) can be executed in any order.

  1. Now you can login with the newly created user test, with the following cURL

$ curl -T $FLEDGE_DATA/etc/certs/test.cert -skX POST <PROTOCOL>://<FLEDGE_IP>:<FLEDGE_REST_API_PORT>/fledge/login

Or use GUI Require User Login